Prior to the development of vaccines, infectious diseases such as diphtheria, tetanus and meningitis are the direct causes of death and illness worldwide, and the development of the vaccine is one of the greatest public health achievements in human history, which has significantly reduced the number of people killed by infectious diseases.
There is a big gap in the rate of vaccination for Australian adults and babies. More than 93% of the babies have been vaccinated, while adults have a 53% to 75% vaccination rate, and adults need to be vaccinated against the risk of disease, especially at some high risk. Disease. If you are an Australian adult, the type of vaccine you need to be vaccinated may depend on a variety of factors, including if you miss the vaccination in childhood, if you are the Aboriginal and the Torres Strait Islander (Torres), then your career, age, and whether you intend to go out for travel Become a factor in consideration.
For those born in Australia
Children less than 4 and 10-15 years old tend to be vaccinated according to national immunization programs, including vaccines for hepatitis B, pertussis, measles and human papillomavirus (HPV), and the changes in immunity after vaccination are often dependent on vaccines, such as the measles vaccine can provide longer protection time to the body, even for the body. It may be lifelong. However, the protection of pertussis vaccine may be shorter. Of course, many vaccines can enhance the immunity of the body.
Measles, mumps, rubella, chickenpox, diphtheria and tetanus
People born in 1966 are likely to have natural immunity to measles because they are already in the human body before the vaccination program, and people born after 1965 may need to be vaccinated with two doses of measles. These people are not sure whether the vaccine can help avoid being vaccinated. Measles virus infection or suppression of measles virus transmission among infants.
Measles vaccines are often given to individuals in the form of MMR (gill wind triple vaccine) or MMRV (gill wind triple vaccine + varicella vaccine). Varicella vaccines are recommended to people aged 14 and above, and these people tend not to suffer from chickenpox, especially women of childbearing age.
Diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis enhanced doses are vaccinated for 10-15 years of age free of charge, and it is recommended to vaccinate middle and old people aged 50 and 65 years old, and people who are not sure the tetanus vaccination should be vaccinated, although tetanus is very rare in Australia, but many cases often occur among the elderly.
Pregnant women are often recommended to vaccinate diphtheria tetanus - acellular pertussis vaccine to protect infants from infection after birth and to be vaccinated at any time in pregnancy. Pertussis is a contagious respiratory tract infection, which is very dangerous for infants and 1 babies in every 200 infants who are exposed to pertussis will die of pertussis. Vaccination is especially important for women who are pregnant for 28 weeks.
Pneumococcal disease and influenza
The vaccination of the pneumococcal vaccine is often free for older people aged 65 and above, and the vaccine is also recommended to be vaccinated in people under 65 years of age to prevent chronic lung disease. 6 months old babies also have flu vaccinations that give any adult the ability to protect against influenza viruses, but it is currently only free of free vaccination in groups that determine risk, such as pregnant women, native Australians, older people aged 65 and over or patients with special diseases, such as chronic lung disease. Disease, kidney disease, and so on.
Influenza vaccines should match the flu virus predicted by researchers every year, and should be able to effectively protect vaccinated people, which cover four different strains of influenza virus, and pregnant women are often at high risk of influenza infection, so researchers recommend that pregnant women should receive influenza vaccine during pregnancy. Species.
Medical staff, child care workers and nursing staff are also the people who need to be vaccinated first, because they tend to take care of the sick people, and are susceptible to the risk of disease outbreaks. Influenza is the most important vaccine among these occupational groups, and some groups will also vaccinal employees free of charge. In addition, we can also ask the doctor for vaccination. Any individuals who have reduced the function of the immune system because of drugs or diseases are often at high risk of disease, but the living virus or bacterial vaccine may not be directly inoculated to people with immune function inhibition. In the fight against hepatitis, children born in Australia are usually vaccinated with four hepatitis B vaccines, but some adults will be recommended for hepatitis A or hepatitis B vaccine.
The human papillomavirus vaccine can protect individuals from a variety of cancers, such as cervical cancer and head and neck cancer. The vaccine is now applied to boys and girls, and is now popularized in high school. It can give older girls and women a certain protection, at least to protect women aged 20 to 30 from the disease caused by the virus.
As the age increases, the immune function of the body will slowly decline, the risk of individual infection will increase, and vaccination is often the most likely target for healthy aging, and the elderly are often suggested to be vaccinated with influenza vaccine, Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccine and herpes zoster vaccine. Influenza and pneumonia are the main causes of illness and death in the elderly. In many seasons, influenza often causes death in children and the elderly.
The most common cause of pneumonia is Streptococcus pneumoniae infection, usually through the pneumococcal vaccine to prevent the infection. There are two types of pneumococcal vaccines: the pneumococcal vaccine (PCV) and the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV), which all protect the group from the group that is lower than the invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae. For example, meningitis and septicemia, it is proved that the combined vaccine can effectively reduce the risk of pneumonia in individuals. Currently, influenza vaccination and pneumococcal vaccines have been funded by the government over the age of 65.
The re activation of varicella virus at the time of herpes zoster often triggers the burden of disease in the elderly and the chronic pain of the patient. The researchers recommend that 60 and older people should be vaccinated with herpes zoster, and the 70-79 year old people who have been vaccinated with herpes zoster are funded by the government.